Did You Know | 05 Jul 2021

BS-VI, CAFE and BS-VI Stage II Norms: All You Need To Know

As we all know, the BS-VI norms were brought into effect on April 1, 2020, to reduce vehicular emissions and further reduce automobiles’ contribution to air pollution. In its endeavour to further reduce vehicular emissions, the government will soon be introducing a new set of BS-VI guidelines in 2023 which is the second stage of the BS norms. Before we dive into what these guidelines are and what changes will need to be made, let us first look at what is Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES).

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What is BSES?

BSES or Bharat Stage Emission Standards are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to keep a check on the output of air pollutants from combustion engines in motor vehicles. The Central Pollution Control Board which works under the Ministry of Environment, governs the standard for the BSES norms. The norms specify the maximum or permissible amount of air pollutants that can be emitted by vehicles. If the vehicles do not meet the emission standards they are not cleared to be sold in the Indian market.

The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles respectively. However, India started adopting the European regulations for pollution control and BSES was introduced in India in 2000 under the name “India 2000”. Since then, the norms have been getting more and more stringent. In the table below you can see the progression of emission norms in India for four wheelers:

Standard

Reference

Date

India 2000

Euro 1

2000

Bharat Stage II

Euro 2

2001-2005

Bharat Stage III

Euro 3

2005-2010

Bharat Stage IV

Euro 4

2010-2020

Bharat Stage VI

Euro 6

2020 onwards



India skipped the Euro 5 norms and implemented the BS-VI norms directly. For two and three-wheelers the dates of implementation have been slightly different than the four wheelers, and they are listed below

Standard

Reference

Date of Implementation

Bharat Stage II

Euro 2

April 1, 2000

Bharat Stage III

Euro 3

April 1, 2010

Bharat Stage IV

Euro 4

April 1, 2017

Bharat Stage VI

Euro 6

April 1, 2020



Why is BSES important?

It is important to note that a fair amount of air pollution is caused by motor vehicles, and if was left unchecked, the pollution levels were only going to keep increasing. Internal combustion engines (ICE) produce harmful carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). Carbon soot or particulate matter (PM) is a by-product emitted by diesel and direct-injection engines. If these parameters go unchecked, the harmful emissions can cause permanent damage to the environment. This is why BSES norms are updated regularly to keep a check on pollution levels.

What is BS-VI?

BS-VI norms were implemented nationwide on April 1, 2020 to replace the existing BS-IV norms enforced in 2017. The BS-VI norms aimed to reduce the NOx levels by 25% for petrol engines and for the first time, a regulation was set for the emission of Particulate Matter (PM) for direct-injection petrol engines. The BS-VI norms are even more stringent for diesel-powered engines. For the diesel, the upper limit for hydrocarbons emissions was reduced by 43%, the limit for NOx levels was reduced by 68% and PM reduction was mandated at a whopping 82%. The table below has the BS-VI emission standards and how they are different from the previous BS-IV norms.

 

Fuel

Emission

BS4

BS6

Difference

Petrol

CO (mg/km)

1000

1000

NA

HC (mg/km)

100

100

NA

NOx (mg/km)

80

60

25%

PM (mg/km)

0

4.5

NA

Diesel

CO (mg/km)

500

500

NA

HC (mg/km)

300

170

43%

NOx (mg/km)

250

80

68%

PM (mg/km)

25

4.5

82%



Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) norms aim at lowering the fuel consumption of vehicles by reducing their CO2 emissions. The CAFE regulations were introduced in India in 2017 and apply to petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG fuelled vehicles. The corporate average here refers to the sales-volume weighted average for every auto manufacturer. As per the current CAFE norms, the average corporate CO2 emission must be less than 130 gm/km by the year 2022. In other words, the vehicles need to be 10% more fuel-efficient by the year 2022.

While manufacturers are still working to meet the CAFE norms, the government has announced that the CAFE II norms will be implemented starting April 2022. As per CAFE II regulations, the average corporate CO2 emission must be less than 113 gm/km.

The primary difference between BS-VI and CAFE norms is that while BS-VI norms focus on reducing harmful exhaust by-products, CAFE norms solely focus on reducing CO2 emissions.

BS-VI Stage 2

The government has already notified us that the BS-VI stage 2 norms will be implemented nationwide on April 1, 2023. However, experts suggest that the actual kick-off of the BS-VI norms begins with the implementation of the CAFE II regulations in April 2022.

With the implementation of the second stage of BS-VI, vehicles will need to meet the actual driving emission norms and will not be limited to the tests only in the laboratories. To facilitate this, vehicles will need to have OBD2 (On-board Diagnostics) as standard. OBD is the vehicle’s onboard self-diagnostic system. Under this advanced, electronically controlled system, the engine malfunction indicator turns on if there is some issue with the vehicle. The OBD2 system will be programmed to monitor the catalytic converter, oxygen sensors and detect engine misfires. If any anomaly is found in the above parameters, the warning lights will be triggered to get the vehicle checked. In short, emission monitoring will be even more stringent than any of the previous BSES norms.

The BS-VI Stage 2 standards target improvements in emission control and fuel efficiency. To achieve this, a lot of changes are going to be required in the vehicles. For instance, petrol engines will need programmed fuel injection that controls the timing and amount of fuel injected into the petrol engine. For optimal use, there will be sensors in the vehicle that will be monitoring various parameters such as the throttle and crankshaft positions, air intake pressure and temperature, the temperature of the engine and the contents of the emissions from the exhaust. Some more significant petrol engines may also employ hybrid systems to reduce fuel consumption, although this will increase the cost significantly. The focus of BS-VI stage 2 seems to be more on increasing fuel efficiency which will, in turn, reduce emissions as well.

The auto industry is gearing up to develop the programmed fuel injection technology to meet the CAFE II and BS-VI Stage 2 norms. Development of the technology and additional hardware and software will add to the manufacturing costs of the vehicles, thus pushing up the cost of acquisition as well. On the brighter side, these norms are set to reduce emissions and pollution, which will positively affect the environment and our overall well-being.
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Comments (17)

rahul panagaria

31 Dec 2022

after the bs6.2 version 1 April 2023 , all lower version will blocked for delivery and registration ????please clarify on this

Souvik

05 Mar 2023

Apache RTR 200 4v is compliant with BS IV PHASE 2 norms ?

Souvik

05 Mar 2023

apache 200 4v compliant with bs6 phase 2 norms?

Mani

18 Mar 2023

Good

John Arockiadass

18 Mar 2023

Good

Girimurugan

25 Mar 2023

Need to the bs6

Karamjit Singh

05 Apr 2023

When will your company launches the BS 6 Phase 2 compliant Two wheelers. Even every company launches e20 compliant vehicles in March 2023 then why TVS lack behind it. It's April and there is no any update about launching of BS 6 phase 2 vehicles from your side.

Jayanta Sinha

13 Apr 2023

I have transferred my vehicle ntorq 125 from my home town Assam to Delhi one month ago. Now I want to re- register the vehicle but Delhi RTO needs Euro VI/ Bharat Stage VI certificate issued by manufacturer. Please help me to get this certificate ASAP, otherwise NOC will be invalid soon.

Jayanta Sinha

13 Apr 2023

I have transferred my two wheeler Ntorq 125 from how town Sikchar (Assam) to Delhi one month ago. Now I want to re-register the vehicle under Delhi govt, however Delhi RTO needs Euro VI/ Bharat Stage VI certificate issued by manufacturer. Please help me to get this Certificate ASAP.

PRATIK ashtankar

17 Jun 2023

The availability of bs6 vehicles spares part in not complete by company even the website of tvs official doesn't update a list of bs 6 noms vehicle

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